Medical Marijuana and the
Limits of the Compassionate Use
Act: Ross v. Raging Wire Telecommunications, 12 CHAPMAN
L. REV. 71, 77-78 (2008)
(“While many effects of marijuana dissipate over a short
period of time, others—such
as respiratory ailments and
decreased cognitive ability
resulting from prolonged exposure to marijuana—remain
concerns over the long term.”);
Annaliese Smith, Comment,
Marijuana as a Schedule I Substance: Political Ploy or Accepted
Science? 40 SANTA CLARA L.
REV. 1137, 1142 (2000)
(“Many studies focus on the
effects of marijuana in the brain
that may result in changes
in cognition, learning and
attention. … In chronic users,
data indicate that long-term
marijuana use impairs the ability
to efficiently process information.”) (citations omitted).
24. See generally Weller v. Ariz.
Dep’t of Econ. Sec., 860 P.2d
487, 495 (Ariz. Ct. App. 1993)
(“[E]mployers have a legitimate
interest in prohibiting employ-
ees from working while they are
physically or mentally impaired
by drugs. Impaired workers are
not only a menace to the vital-
ity of our economy but also to
the safety of the community
and other workers.”); La Fetra,
supra note 23, at 75 (“Employ-
er fears of employee absentee-
ism, shiftlessness, or malfeasance
while under the influence of
marijuana, even when recom-
mended for medical purposes,
rest on medical studies demon-
strating a wide range of impacts
that can occur, especially with
prolonged ingestion of the
25. See Burka v. N. Y.C. Transit
Auth., 739 F. Supp. 814, 821
(S.D.N. Y. 1990) (observing
that “urinalysis is not necessarily
determinative of impairment
from marijuana while on-duty”);
Nat’l Fed’n of Fed. Emps. v.
Carlucci, 690 F. Supp. 46, 49
(D.D.C. 1988) (“[U]rinalysis
drug testing detects any recent
use of tested-for drugs, off-
duty as well as on-duty. … [I]t
cannot show that off-duty use
necessarily has an effect on work
performance.”) (emphasis omit-
ted), aff’d in part and vacated
in part sub nom. Nat’l Fed’n of
Fed. Emps. v. Cheney, 884 F.2d
603 (D.C. 1989); Jay S. Becker
& Saranne E. Weimer,
Legalization of Marijuana Raises Significant Questions and Issues for
Employers, 291 N.J. LAW. 66,
68 (Dec. 2014) (“Typically,
marijuana is tested through a
urine sample. … However, marijuana can remain in the individual’s system for weeks. Hence, a
urinalysis is not a reliable way to
determine whether an individual is currently impaired.”).
26. See, e.g., Peterson v. Neb. Dep’t of
Health & Human Servs., 805
N. W.2d 667, 675 (Neb. Ct.
App. 2011) (“It was of the utmost importance, for his safety
and the safety of others, that
[the plaintiff] remain alert and
unimpaired at work. Clearly, his
use of marijuana prior to reporting to work had the potential
to affect his job performance
and jeopardize the safety and
security of [the workplace].”);
see also Kehde v. Iowa Dep’t of
Job Serv., 318 N. W.2d 202, 207
(Iowa 1982) (“[T]he intoxica-
ting effect of marijuana poses
obvious risks to an employee
who is under the influence of
the drug and to coworkers.”).
27. See La Fetra, supra note 23, at
73-74 (“Impaired employees
… are more likely to make
mistakes when they are at work.
Employers may become liable
for misdeeds committed by
their drug-using employees.”);
Thomas H. Barnard & Martin
S. List, Defense Perspective on
Individual Employment Rights,
67 NEB. L. REV. 193, 202
(1988) (“[E]mployers have
become more acutely concern-
ed with the direct and indirect
costs of drug use in, or affect-
ing, the workplace. Additional
costs can occur through liability
to third parties for injuries
caused by employees under the
influence of drugs, whether
directly or on the theory of
negligent hiring.”) (citations
28. See Coats, 350 P.3d at 850.
29. See id.
30. See id. at 850-51.
31. The Colorado Medical Marijuana Amendment is a state
constitutional provision that
created a limited exception to
the application of the state’s
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